The Public Health in Russia During the Last 100 Years (1897-1997)
6,7 years for females. The life expectancy in 1964 (64,4 years for males) was highest during the period from 1897 to 1987. Later on, unfortunately, during the peaceful time and lack of serious calamities the life expectancy somewhat decreased and stayed on this level more than 20 years. After the small increase, it started to fall starting the 1992. The three-year period (1992–1994) was the most difficult and during that period the significant deterioration of public health in Russia was observed. The life expectancy of the total population decreased comparing to that in 1986: in 1993 – in 2,2 years, and in 1994 – in 6,1 years.
After the 1987, and especially during 1993–1994, the decrease in life expectancy was due to fast growth in mortality from heart and coronary diseases; traumas and poisonings (including suicides and alcohol poisoning). During 1990–1995 the fast mortality growth from psychical disorders was recorded. Among serious indicators, characterizing public health that serve as signs of general social-household and sanitary-epidemically adverse conditions in the country was increase (starting 1992) in number of diseases, connected to profound social processes, bad social and sanitary infrastructure and poor medical care. Syphilis and tuberculosis were long considered as such diseases.
The beginning stage of social adaptation to new conditions (1995–1998) was accompanied by unstable and very weak advance of some of the signs of public health. Thus, the life expectancy of the total population increased in 3,2 years (4,2 years for males and 1,6 years for females), comparing to that in 1994. The decrease in mortality in 1995 comparing to 1994 was due to decrease in death numbers from heart and coronary diseases in 66,9 thousand cases, including decrease in number of heart attacks in 2,4 thousand cases. The mortality due to traumas and poisoning (including alcohol poisoning – in 13 thousand cases, automobile traumas – in 3,4 thousand cases, homicides – in 2,6 thousand cases, suicides – in 0,9 thousand cases) decreased in 19,9 thousand cases. Some decrease in mortality from lung diseases was also observed.
Fig. 9–1. Urbanization in Russia: the share of urban population (in %)
Fig.9 –2. The cases of typhoid fever (the proportion of cases to the number in 1913, that is considered as 100%)
Fig 9—3. Life expectancy for males and females in Russia prior to 1940.
Fig. 9 –4. The cases of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever during 1913–1966 (the proportion of cases to the number in 1917, which is considered as 100%).
Fig. 9–5. Life expectancy for males and females in Russia during 1946–1984.
Fig. 9–6. Standardized death rate of males in Russia from all causes (number of deaths per 100 thousands of people).
Fig. 9–7. Standardized death rate from infectious diseases (number of deaths per 100 thousands people).
Fig. 9–8. Standardized death rate of males in Russia from circulatory system diseases (number of deaths per 100 thousands people).
Fig. 9–9. Life expectancy for males and females in Russia during 1980–1998.
Fig. 9–10. Age structure of Russian population in 1897 and 1997 (the proportion of each age group in total population).
Fig. 9–11. Dynamics of total deaths rate from suicides and homicides (number of deaths per 100 thousands people).
Fig. 9–12. Dynamics of mortality from psychical disorders (total deaths rate, 1990 is considered as 100 %).
Fig.9–13. Infant mortality (died at the age less then 1-year per 10 thousand).
Table 9–1 Russian population (thousands people).
Table 9–2. The mortality from infectious diseases in 50 Russian districts.
Table 9–3 Infant mortality in Russia at the end of XIX – beginning of XX century.
Table 9–4 Average life expectancy in some European countries.
Table 9–5 Mortality from infectious diseases during 1890–1894 (by 15 cities in each country, number of deaths per 100 thousand of people).
Table 9–6 Mortality of St. Petersburg inhabitants during 1909–1912, depending on their social position.
Table 9–7. The losses of Russian army by February 1 1917.
Table 9–8. The losses of Red Army during civil war (1918–1922).
Table 9–9. Infectious diseases in Russia during civil war and military intervention (number of cases per 100 thousand people).
Table 9–10. Life expectancy and infant mortality in Russia during 1928-1932.
Table 9–11. The increase in hospital beds and number of physicians in Russia (per 10 thousand of people).
Table 9–12 Dynamics of life expectancy in USSR during 40th (years).
Table 9–12a. Life expectancy in Russia and in the developed countries.
Table 9–13. The structure of Russia’s population (proportion of people of various age in total population, in %).
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